To help you get started, we have put together a list of some of the more popular early reading methods out there to give you a grasp of their salient principles and differences. You may discover that a particular one matches your child's learning style and preferences perfectly, or even that a combination, rather than any single one, of these techniques are far more effective in teaching the written word to your baby.
Glenn Doman's Flashcard Method
Glenn Doman is a physical therapist who developed an approach to treating brain-damaged children in the 1950s in the United States. As his research progressed, he found out that the same type of accelerated learning method he used with brain-injured children can be applied on normal children. In fact, he believes that all babies have a genius potential that if properly developed, can well exceed that of Leonardo da Vinci and Albert Einstein. To draw out this genius potential, children should be appropriately stimulated from infancy by their parents, who are invariably the first and best teachers for the task.
Using flashcards, Glenn Doman devised a step-up method of reading instruction that follows a particular consistent schedule. The size and orderliness of the reading materials are especially important. The younger your child is, the larger the words ought to be on the flashcards, in order to cater to his unmatured eye-brain pathway. Start by flashing single words that are meaningful to your baby, such as those pertaining to the self, family and home environment. After a certain number of times, move on to couplets (made up of 2 single words that your kid has learnt). Then progress to phrases, and finally to sentences. At this juncture, parents should be adding storybooks to the mix, always making sure that words are appropriately separated from pictures to keep your child's primary focus on the text.
The best time to start the reading programme is when your little one is 6 to 24 months. Parents should remember, as Doman always emphasises, to teach only when your child is in a happy and open mood, and to do so with a loving and enthusiastic attitude. Flashcards should be shown 3 times a day, and gradually exchanged after 5 days for new ones, to avoid children from getting bored. In keeping with the child-centric focus of his programme, Glenn Doman recommends that the time involved for each reading session should be short, around 5 minutes or so. The key is to NEVER, NEVER pressurise your child.
Robert Titzer, an American professor, is a highly-recognised infant researcher. His video of his 9-month-old daughter Aleka displaying the ability to understand all the words on the flashcards shown to her continues to amaze people around the world.
What Robert Titzer advocates is the multisensory method of teaching reading, which is based on the principle that by stimulating as many of a child's senses as possible as he is being taught to read, the easier it is for the child to remember the words. For example, when teaching your child the written word "cheese," the best way is to let him see, touch, smell and taste the object as he sees and hears the word "cheese."
The advantage of this approach is that the variety of stimuli makes it more interesting for a little kid. It also helps to engage different types of children from the visual, auditory, to the kinaesthetic (movement) learners. As this method places much more emphasis on understanding the meaning behind words, it allows us to assess --- for example, through a child's physical gesticulations --- whether he is able to read a word, even before he can talk
However, this method may mean that parents have to spend more time and effort preparing the relevant teaching materials, including pictures, sound effects, even the actual objects. A consequence of this is that fewer words are taught at any one point in time. A far more efficient way nowadays is probably to avail yourself to the expanding early learning market with its variety of educational websites and VCD/DVDs that engage in some form of multisensory learning.
English writing is based on the alphabetic principle, whereby letters are used to represent speech sounds. Phonics is an approach to teaching reading that acquaints students with these letter-sound relationships. Children learn how to "decode" words, that is, sound out individual letters, as well as groups of letters, in order to blend the sounds together to correctly pronounce written words.
Phonics is a useful supplement for beginning readers who have learnt to sight-read and/or mastered the letters of the alphabet. It advances them to the next level in their language literacy, by providing them the tools for spelling and reading (particularly unfamiliar words). For that matter, it is more suited for slightly older children, rather than babies and toddlers less than 2 years of age.
There are several approaches to teaching phonics, which vary according to how letter-sound combinations are represented to children, and how unknown words are to be decoded. But by and large, it boils down to essentially two ways of teaching phonics:
1) Analytic Phonics: It is a whole-to-part approach in which children are first taught a number of sight words, and then led to make relevant phonic generalisations about common parts of these words. Sets of similarly-spelt words would be learnt together in rhyming groups called word families. For example, the word family of "rat," "cat," "bat" and "mat" teaches students about the "at" ending sound. When a child encounters a new word, he should identify it by its overall shape, beginning and ending letters, and any context clues from the rest of the sentence or any accompanying picture. If he is unable to sight-read or guess at it accurately, then he should break it down (i.e. analyse) to smaller parts, which he can relate to already learnt letter-sound relationships. In analytic phonics, the blending or putting together of sounds is not usually taught.
2) Synthetic Phonics: Children are taught to relate every letter or letter combination, in the order in which it appears in a word, with its corresponding sound and then put them together. In this approach, students will learn in a systematic manner all the 44 phonic sounds which make up the English language, with an eye to blending the sounds for reading, or segmenting them for spelling. In synthetic phonics, children need not be able to recognise whole words as shapes (i.e. they need not know how to sight-read), nor have prior knowledge of the letters of the alphabet. Letters and their relevant sounds are taught at the same time, and once a child has mastered all the 44 phonic sounds, he would be able to blend or synthesise the pronunciation of any word he encounters.
Something For Every Child
If your child does not seem engaged in a particular method, then try out a combination of different techniques, or experiment with various early reading products. With the fast-expanding market of early childhood educational devices --- and with some persistence --- you should be able to find something that resonates with your little one.
KiddyLearn is an online educational platform for children 0-6 years old. We offer various programmes such as Kiddy Read, Kiddy Chinese, Kiddy Bilingo, etc. For all three programmes, we use a mixture of established methodologies (including right-brain educational principles) and a mixture of interesting content (words, pictures, animations, and native-voice narratives), delivered through daily preplanned lessons that just need a few quick clicks to play. There is a whopping total of 336 lessons respectively in Kiddy Read and Kiddy Chinese. We enable you to teach your child using the latest technologies, offering you lots more convenience and effectiveness.
For more info on our methodology, please click on this link https://www.kiddylearn.com/Programmes.aspx
Labels: Home Education
Institutions of education, and the system of which they are a part, face a host of unprecedented challenges from forces in society that affect and are influenced by these very institutions and their communities of learners and educators. Among these forces are sweeping demographic changes, shrinking provincial budgets, revolutionary advances in information and telecommunication technologies, globalization, competition from new educational providers, market pressures to shape educational and scholarly practices toward profit-driven ends, and increasing demands and pressures for fundamental changes in public policy and public accountability relative to the role of higher education in addressing pressing issues of communities and the society at large. Anyone of these challenges would be significant on their own, but collectively they increase the complexity and difficulty for education to sustain or advance the fundamental work of serving the public good.
Through a forum on education, we can agree to: Strengthening the relationship between higher education and society will require a broad-based effort that encompasses all of education, not just individual institutions, departments and associations.
Piecemeal solutions can only go so far; strategies for change must be informed by a shared vision and a set of common objectives. A "movement" approach for change holds greater promise for transforming academic culture than the prevailing "organizational" approach.
Mobilizing change will require strategic alliances, networks, and partnerships with a broad range of stakeholders within and beyond education.
The Common Agenda is specifically designed to support a "movement" approach to change by encouraging the emergence of strategic alliances among individuals and organizations who care about the role of higher education in advancing the ideals of a diverse democratic system through education practices, relationships and service to society.
A Common Agenda
The Common Agenda is intended to be a "living" document and an open process that guides collective action and learning among committed partners within and outside of higher education. As a living document, the Common Agenda is a collection of focused activity aimed at advancing civic, social, and cultural roles in society. This collaboratively created, implemented, and focused Common Agenda respects the diversity of activity and programmatic foci of individuals, institutions, and networks, as well as recognizes the common interests of the whole. As an open process, the Common Agenda is a structure for connecting work and relationships around common interests focusing on the academic role in serving society. Various modes of aliening and amplifying the common work within and beyond education will be provided within the Common Agenda process.
This approach is understandably ambitious and unique in its purpose and application. Ultimately, the Common Agenda challenges the system of higher education, and those who view education as vital to addressing society's pressing issues, to act deliberately, collectively, and clearly on an evolving and significant set of commitments to society. Currently, four broad issue areas are shaping the focus of the Common Agenda: 1) Building public understanding and support for our civic mission and actions; 2) Cultivating networks and partnerships; 3) Infusing and reinforcing the value of civic responsibility into the culture of higher education institutions; and 4) Embedding civic engagement and social responsibility in the structure of the education system
VISION We have a vision of higher education that nurtures individual prosperity, institutional responsiveness and inclusivity, and societal health by promoting and practicing learning, scholarship, and engagement that respects public needs. Our universities are proactive and responsive to pressing social, ethical, and economic problems facing our communities and greater society. Our students are people of integrity who embrace diversity and are socially responsible and civilly engaged throughout their lives.
MISSION The purpose of the Common Agenda is to provide a framework for organizing, guiding and communicating the values and practices of education relative to its civic, social and economic commitments to a diverse democratic system.
I believe social justice, ethics, educational equity, and societal change for positive effects are fundamental to the work of higher education. We consider the relationship between communities and education institutions to be based on the values of equally, respect and reciprocity, and the work in education to be interdependent with the other institutions and individuals in society.
We will seek and rely on extensive partnerships with all types of institutions and devoted individuals inside and outside of higher education.
We realize the interconnection of politics, power and privilege. The Common Agenda is not for higher education to self-serve, but to "walk the talk" relative to espoused public goals. We understand the Common Agenda as a dynamic living document, and expect the activities it encompasses to change over time.
THE COMMON AGENDA FRAMEWORK The general framework for the common agenda is represented in the following diagram. It is clear that while goals and action items are organized and aliened within certain issues areas, there is considerable overlap and complimentarity among the issues, goals and action items. Also, following each action item are names of individuals who committed to serve as "point persons" for that particular item. A list of "point persons," with their organizational affiliation(s) is included with the common agenda.
ISSUE 1: MISSION AND ACTIONS
Public understanding more and more equates higher education benefits with acquiring a "good job" and receiving "higher salaries." To understand and support the full benefits of higher education the public and higher education leaders need to engage in critical and honest discussions about the role of higher education in society. Goal: Develop a common language that resonates both inside and outside the institution. Action Items: Develop a common language and themes about our academic role and responsibility to the public good, through discussions with a broader public.
Collect scholarship on public good, examine themes and identify remaining questions. Develop a national awareness of the importance of higher education for the public good through the development of marketing efforts.
Goal: Promote effective and broader discourse. Action Items: Raise public awareness about the institutional diversity within and between higher education institutions.
Identify strategies for engaging alumni associations for articulating public good and building bridges between higher education and the various private and public sector companies. Develop guidelines of discourse to improve the quality of dialogue on every level of society. Organize a series of civil dialogues with various public sectors about higher education and the public good.
ISSUE 2: DEVELOPING NETWORKS AND PARTNERSHIPS
Approaching complex issues such as the role of higher education in society that requires a broad mix of partners to create strategies and actions that encompass multiple valued perspectives and experiences.
Broad partnerships to strengthen the relationship between higher education and society involves working strategically with those within and outside of higher education to achieve mutual goals on behalf of the public good.
Goal: Create broad and dispersed communication systems and processes.
Create an information and resource network across higher education associations Create information processes that announce relevant conferences, recruit presenters and encourage presentations in appropriate national conferences Develop opportunities for information sharing and learning within and between various types of postsecondary institutions (e.g. research-centered communities).
Goal: Create and support strategic alliances and diverse collaborations.
Action Items: Establish and support on-going partnerships and collaborations between higher education associations and the external community (e.g. civic organizations, legislators, community members) Explore with the public how to employ the role of arts in advancing higher education for the public good Promote collaboration between higher education and to address access, retention, and graduation concerns
ISSUE 3: INSTILLING AND REINFORCING THE VALUE OF CIVIC RESPONSIBILITY INTO THE CULTURE OF HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS
Education should attend to the implicit and explicit consequences of its work, and reexamine "what counts" to integrate research, teaching and service for the public good to the core working of the institution.
Goal: Emphasize civic skills and leadership development in the curriculum and co-curriculum.
Action Items: Develop and implement a curriculum in colleges and universities that promote civic engagement of students Create co-curricular student and community programs for leadership and civic engagement development Develop learning opportunities, inside and outside of the classroom, that promote liberty, democratic responsibility, social justice and knowledge of the economic system Develop student leadership and service opportunities that focus on ethical behavior Teach graduate students organizing and networking skills, and encourage student leadership and Diversity education
Goal: Foster a deeper commitment to the public good.
Action Items: Work with faculty on communication skills and languages to describe their engagement with the public, and educate faculty for the common good Identify models for promotion and tenure standards Identify models for faculty development
Goal: Identify, recognize, and support engaged scholarship.
Action Items: Identify and disseminate models and exemplars of scholarship on the public good Encourage the participation in community research Help institutions call attention to exemplary outreach. Establish a capacity building effort for institutions
Goal: Bring graduate education into alignment with the civic mission.
Action Items: Work with disciplinary associations to hold dialogues on ways graduate student training can incorporate public engagement, involvement and service Promote "civic engagement" within academic and professional disciplines according to the disciplines' definition of "civic engagement" Incorporate the concept of higher education for the public good into current graduate education reform efforts
ISSUE 4: EMBEDDING CIVIC ENGAGEMENT AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE STRUCTURE OF THE HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM
Promoting the public benefits of higher education requires system efforts beyond institutions to intentionally embed values of civic engagement and social responsibility in governance practices, policy decisions, and educational processes.
Goal: Align governing structures and administrative strategies.
Action Items: Develop ways to improve student and the community involvement in the governance and decision making process of educational institutions. Identify and promote ways for institutions to improve involvement with the public and the practice of democracy within their own institution. Establish public good/civic engagement units that orchestrate this work throughout institutions.
Goal: Publicly recognize and support valuable engagement work.
Action Items: Offer public awards that reward institutions with demonstrable track record in serving the public good in order to encourage institutionalization of performance around the public good and civic engagement.
Develop a comprehensive inventory of funding sources, association activities, initiatives, and exemplary practices that advance the public good. Identify, recognize, and support early career scholars who choose to do research on higher education and its public role in society.
Goal: Ensure that assessment and accreditation processes include civic engagement and social responsibility.
Action Items: Identify service for the public good as a key component in provincial and federal educational plans (e.g. Master Plans, provincial budgets, and professional associations).
Bring higher education associations and legislators together to broaden current definition of student outcomes and achievement, and develop a plan for assessment.
Develop strategies and processes to refocus system-wide planning, accreditation and evaluation agendas to consider criteria assessing the social, public benefits of education.
Goal: Cultivate stronger ties between the university, federal and provincial government.
Action Items: Develop a 2-year implementation plan that joins the university rector / Pro-rector and Director with provincial legislators to engage in an assessment of the needs of the public by province Host a series of dialogues between trustees and provincial legislators to discuss the role of universities and public policy in advancing public good at a local, provincial, and national level.
Ms. Afshan Saleem
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